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Crime Prevention

CCTV (Close Circuit Television)

CCTV

The technology boom has undoubtedly aided in the creation of an Orwellian society with surveillance everywhere. This has undeniably helped people and business owners who have been victims of crime but it has led to a huge increase in the amount of people privately purchasing CCTV cameras. It could be argued that this is in some way voiding the privacy of people walking around the city. According to statistics, the average citizen is caught on CCTV cameras 300 times a day. There are 25 million CCTV cameras in operation worldwide, with 2.5 million in the UK. In Reading town centre alone, there are 327 CCTV cameras, a handful on the street, 140 in the shopping centre and 161 in the main car park. There is an estimated 25 million cameras worldwide with 2.5 million being in the UK.

A survey was done in 2005 by the Home Office, which showed that in most areas with CCTV systems installed, crime was not reduced by much, but residents and businesses felt much safer.

CCTV has many benefits; the main advantage is that, installing CCTV will provide a safe environment for the society, business or home, and you dint have to employ security staff/guards, this will save the user a lot of money. Also the recordings can be used as evidence in court, if there is a problem. In addition to this if criminals see the cameras, it may deter them from committing a crime, and it is easier for the police to indentify criminals. Furthermore cameras can be installed in areas which are redistricted to the public and staff, or inaccessible areas.

But on the other hand CCTV has its disadvantages to. Because some people might think that it is another way for the government to spy on people and it invades their privacy which may cause discomfort in come people. In addition to this, if criminals see that there are no or less cameras in an area, the crime rate may go up there. Also the government might assume that installing CCTV in an area will mean that they don't need as much police patrolling on the street. Also the criminals might move to areas where there are less cameras. Furthermore if there are many CCTV around your area, people may think crime levels are high, therefore may reduce the value of your home, and make residents feel unsafe.

CCTV

CCTV has helped in many ways keeping us and our belonging safe. Also it helped in court cases. For example in June 2000, CCTV helped detectives hunt for a nail bomber and sentences the criminal (David Copland) to six life sentences for 3 murders. The cameras captured him roaming around Brixton. (BBC NEWS). This arrest highlighted one of the roles of CCTV systems, to prevent crimes. And without them, this criminal could have got away.

Advantages

CCTV’s provide a safe environment for society, without personal supervision of a police presence this can save money and time. Images are recorded and can be used as evidence against criminals, those that are not needed are disregarded. The invention of CCTV cameras prevents citizens from committing offences, by the fear of getting caught. This therefore reduces the amount of crimes that are committed.

Disadvantages

In result to camera's stationed everywhere it places a threat to individual's privacy, as they are constantly under surveillance which may cause the society stress and discomfort. Some societies may feel that the presence of the cameras will affect the number of police patrolling the neighbourhood and therefore petition against the installation of cameras.

Chip and PIN

Chip and Pin

The latest attempt to make credit cards even more secure is “Chip and PIN” – a reference to the chip inside the card and the 4 digit pin number that comes with each card. The PIN system is the successor of the traditional signature transaction method. Whereas the signature method could be forged, the PIN number cannot if only the customer knows it.

How dependant are we on ICT?

Chip and pin has been introduced quite recently; however it is necessary to keep details and accounts safe, in the case of fraud or theft. Transactions can be made in many other ways; therefore it isn’t a necessity for transactions, however, it is a quick and easy to transfer money from one company/bank to another.

Advantages

The pin makes it hard for fraudsters/thieves to steal the money on the account if stolen. The credit/debit card is small and thin and can be carried in a wallet. It is also hard to break because of the plastic hard material. This added level of security has proven to be beneficial to customers who are seeking extra security protection aswell as banks that are trying to prevent identity theft and stop their customers from losing their money to theft.

Disadvantages

The card can only be authorised by the four digit pin, therefore if the pin is forgotten or entered incorrectly, the card cannot be used. Another major disadvantage is that; whilst entering the four digit pin number, others around can easily see the pin if it is not hidden properly, making it easy for fraudsters/thieves to enter your account. Also, if one has more than one credit/debit cards; it can be difficult to remember all the numbers and for the right card.

Evaluation

There are many advantages to the chip and pin as its aim to make the use of credit cards safer. The four digit pin code only known by the card holder replaced the need for a signature; therefore should reduce the acts of debit/credit card frauds. On the other hand, the pin can easily be seen by others when being typed on the machine. Also, in the case of the pin being forgotten, the transaction will not take place, especially if one has more than



Tracking Devices

Tracking devices are not only available for spies and the government anymore. They are available for a range of things, for example cars, phones, and people.

Tracking vehicles has become very popular in new cars; this is because of the large amount vehicles being stolen. Vehicle tracking, is a small device fitted in a car, it is activated when the owner of the vehicle calls the police and register it stolen. This will then enable the tracker to send out signals, which nearby police officers can pick up and follow, until they find the vehicle. Another method of tracking is using mobile phone signals or placing trackers inside the phone. This type of tracking could be used in many ways, for instance helping the police find it if it is stolen, also it be used for the safety for children, this is because parent can track the phone to see where their child is. As well as this delivery and taxi businesses can use it to track where their drivers are.

Tracking devices have impacted our lives in many ways. They have helped police bring down crime and help them keep track released criminals. Also it has help parents look after their children.

Tracking devices have many advantages from keeping people in control to following them. But Tracking devices have it disadvantages too; this is because some people could illegally track people, to find out more about them. Another problem is that this service could be expensive to use, also it invades people's privacy. The BBC done an experiment to prove that it is possible to track some one without their knowledge

Advantages

Tracking devices allow customers to keep a track on where a parcel is or where someone is. Employeers have found it particularly useful because they can install trackers on shipments or deliveries, then monitor where the delivery is, so that they can make sure they are avaiable to recieve it when it arrives. It also gives people an ease of mind because they can physically see where a potentially important package is, in the world. This ensures them that it is in transit and that the parcel has indeed been dispatched. Delivery and courier companies have also found great use for them, because they can monitor how far along their employee is and whether they are on route to the destination and on time. Intelligence agencies such as MI5 and CIA have also found great use for tracking devices. As they can use them to bug a vehicle or a person so that they can monitor where they are in the world. It allows them to constantly recieve information about where they are in the world, and it can help the intelligence agencies detect a potential threat or suspicious behaviour.

Disadvantages

There has been alot of controversy surrounding the use of tracking devices. As they are see to violate peoples privacy and gives the tracker too much information about their whereabouts. There was alot of suspicion that trackers could be used by the wrong kind of people to track someone they wanted to murder, steal from or commit some of other kind of crime. However the use of tracking devices for unlawful activity has been relatively low. Also many employee's do not like their employers using tracking devices on them because they feel it is unfair and a violation of their privacy for someone to know where they are at all times.

Evaluation

ICT has added so much to the world of Crime Prevention. The Police and governing authorities especially intelligence agencies such as the CIA and MI5 have found great use for these technologies in the prevention of crime. Unfortunatly the technology is not only in the hands of the authority, it also in the hands of the general public and it is sold in the free market. So anyone can use this equipment for their own use. Therefore it is seen by soem to be an envasion of privacy as anyone can video record someone with CCTV, or they can track someone with a Tracking Device.